That is intuitively true, but there is no objective standard for determining what constitutes unattractive appearance, poor dress-sense, bad habits, or whether irritability is always unattractive. Forcing and the Indeterminacy of Translation. Philosophy of Science 45, no.
Nature has a specific function for everybody part, the proper use of body parts leads to happiness and the misuse of a body part leads to unhappiness. Some of these things can even be practiced by individuals to yield a similar personal reward.
Bundling Hume with Kripkenstein.
Philosophy of Science 43, no. Essays on the Philosophy ofW. It justifies, for example, functionally normal females discriminating on the basis of sexual orientation of males when seeking a partner with whom to procreate and found a family.
Back to the argument: It does not justify discrimination in any context other than when selecting for a partner with the aim of procreating and establishing a family and, perhaps, in explaining moderately-negative attitudes to public displays of gay sex.
Levin reasons that Jones is much less likely to live as happy a life as he would have had had he kept his teeth where they were and used them for the purpose for which they were selected: Levin seems particularly interested in anal sex as one homosexual activity that is not consistent with the natural function of genitalia.
I am not sure if this is necessarily the case, but it is an area where normal heterosexual responses may have been mischaracterised. Some parts of the Lutheran Of course, Levin might just be trying to lend inductive support to his claim by giving us this story, but if that is the case he needs more than just one very very odd case if he expects readers to follow his reasoning.
American Antiquity 38, no. In any case, the question is not whether it is normal or natural for the population to include some gay people, but whether it is normal for an individual to be gay, and the arguments from statistical regularity and from nature do not answer this question.
Relativity, Spatial and Ontological. The related argument that homosexuality is normal because it is natural people are born that way faces a similar objection: If homosexuality is abnormal, then all sorts of other activities are abnormal.
The Journal of Philosophy 72, no. The essay begins, "This essay defends the view that homosexuality is abnormal and hence undesirable -- not because it is immoral or sinful, or because it weakens society or hampers evolutionary development, but for a purely mechanical reason.
You might imagine someone surviving just fine with no teeth, but our intuition is that it is wrong based on the problems anyone without teeth would face in ordinary life. On theory-change and meaning-change. I mean, respond directly to the argument. Contra Stephen Colbert, who says, "Men know what men like," homosexuality is not based on reason, but arises purely from our genes.
Second, Levin argues that even if homosexuality is genetic, or not a choice or under the control of the person, it could still be wrong. Why we believe in other minds.
I conclude that satisfaction of this second tier of normative evaluation presents an impossible evidential burden and must be rejected. Most important, reasonable philosophers point out the naturalist fallacy here. Second, the editors felt that making a convincing case against homosexuality would work against the moral good of acceptance of homosexuality.
The sexual function is nonetheless not exhausted by males just producing sperm and by females just producing eggs; there is also a performative dimension to sexuality that involves, relevantly, sexual orientation.
If enjoyment cannot count as a reason for a homosexual, it cannot count as a reason for the priests either.A reply to Levin's paper "Why Homosexuality is Abnormal" (killarney10mile.comophy) submitted 4 years ago by ReallyNicole Φ The following is my very brief summary of and reply to.
Why Homosexuality Is Abnormal unless one says that Weinberg's and Williams's indices for public tolerance and distress-chiefly homosexuals' self-reports of "unhappiness" and "lack of faith in others" -are unreliable.
Such complaints, however, push the social causation theory toward untestability. 22 Michael Levin 1 Introduction This essay defends the view that homosexuality is abnormal and hence undesirable - not be-cause it is immoral or sinful, or because it.
Michael Levin I Introduction This essay defends the view that homosexuality is abnormal and hence undesirable - not because it is immoral or sinful, or because it weakens society or hampers evolutionary development, but for a purely mechanical reason.
The present argument differs in an important way from Michael Levin’s Why Homosexuality is Abnormal (The Monist, ) in that I focus on deficiency of the sexual function rather than just on the functionally abnormal use of body parts. Abnormal use does not negate the capacity for normal use when normal use is required and therefore does not.
Michael Levin Why Homosexuality Is Abnormal Words | 21 Pages. Michael Levin I Introduction This essay defends the view that homosexuality is abnormal and hence undesirable - not because it is immoral or sinful, or because it weakens society or hampers evolutionary development, but for a purely mechanical reason.
It is a misuse of bodily parts.Download